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BREED PROFILE / Yorkshire Terrier

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Yorkshire Terrier
A Yorkshire Terrier that is an American Champion.
Country of origin
England
Common nicknames
Yorkie
Classification and breed standards
FCI: Group 3 (Terriers) Section 4 (Toy Terriers) #86 Stds
AKC: Toys Stds
ANKC: Group 1 (Toys) Stds
CKC: Group 5 (Toys) Stds
KC (UK): Toys Stds
NZKC: Toys Stds
UKC: Companion Breeds Stds

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The Yorkshire Terrier, (often called simply the Yorkie), is a breed of small dog in the toy category.[1][2][3] The long-haired terrier is known for its playful demeanor and distinctive blue and tan coat.[4][1][2] Yorkies can be very small, usually weighing between 5 and 7 pounds (2.5 to 3.5 kilograms). [5] Based on registrations, Yorkshire Terriers became the #2 most popular dog breed in the United States in 2006 according to the American Kennel Club, trailing only the Labrador Retriever.[6]

Appearance

General

The Yorkshire Terrier breed standard specifies that the dog should have a compact build and hold itself in an upright manner, conveying a confident and self-assured demeanor (a reflection of its temperament).[1][2] The Yorkie's appearance should be one of spirit, intelligence and vigor.[2] In dog shows, a Yorkie that appears sullen or lifeless will be penalized.[1] Underneath the Yorkie's silky coat, its body is athletic and sturdy, designed for an active life.[7] When trotting about, the Yorkie has a free, jaunty gait, with both head and tail held high.[7] For Yorkies, toy stature does not mean frail or fragile. .[7]

Coat and color

Yorkshire Terriers are a long-haired breed with no undercoat, which means that they do not shed.[8] Rather, their hair is like human hair in that it grows continuously and falls out rarely (only when brushed or broken).[7] This makes Yorkies one of the best breeds for allergy sufferers.[8] Additionally, since Yorkies carry less dander on their coat, they generally do not have the unpleasant "wet dog" odor when wet. Yorkie puppies are born with a silky-soft black and tan coat and normally have black hairs mixed in with the tan until they are matured.[1] The breed standard for adult Yorkies places prime importance on coat color, quality and texture.[1] The hair must be glossy, fine and silky.[1] From the back of the neck to the base of the tail, the coat should be a dark steel-blue (not silver-blue), never mingled with fawn, bronze or black hairs.[2][1] Hair on the tail should be a darker blue.[1] On the head, chest and legs, hair should be a bright, rich tan, darker at the roots than in the middle, shading to still lighter tan at the tips.[1][2] There should be no dark hairs intermingled with any of the tan.[1] Many Yorkies do not conform to the standard for coat color; the tan may range from a very light blonde to a darker brown, while the body may be black or silvery gray.[7] The Yorkie??ôs nose, lips, eye-rims, paw-pads and nails should be darkly pigmented.[1]

The breed standard requires that the Yorkshire Terrier's hair be perfectly straight (not wavy).[1][2] For show purposes, the coat is grown-out long and parted down the middle of the back, but may be trimmed to floor length to give ease of movement and a neater appearance.[1][2] Hair on the feet and the tips of ears should also be trimmed.[1] The traditional long coat is extremely high maintenance, requiring hours of daily brushing.[7] To maintain the long coats of show dogs (between exhibitions), the hair may be wrapped in rice paper, after a light oiling, which prevents the hairs from being broken easily and keeps the coat in condition.[7] As a more practical alternative, many Yorkie-owners opt to keep the dog's coat trimmed to a shorter all-over length.[7]

Build and proportions

The Yorkshire Terrier has a small head, which, according to the breed standard, should be rather flat and not too round.[9] The teeth should have either a ???scissors bite??? or a ???level bite??? (no underbite or overbite).[1] The Yorkie??ôs dark eyes are not too prominent, but should be sparkling, with sharp intelligent expression, and placed to look directly forward.[3] The small, V-shaped ears are set high on the head, not too far apart, and should be carried erect.[2] In some kennel clubs, ears that do not stand up are cause for automatic disqualification.[9]

The breed standard dictates that a Yorkshire Terrier must weigh no more than seven pounds.[3] The compact body of a Yorkie is well proportioned.[9] The back should be level, with the same height at the base of the neck and the base of the tail.[3] The tail is carried slightly higher than the level of the back.[10] In a standing position, the Yorkie??ôs front legs should be straight. The back legs should be straight when viewed from behind, but moderately bent when viewed from the side.[9]

Modifications

Often, a Yorkie??ôs dewclaws, if any, are removed.[1] The AKC and UKC breed standards explicitly permit dewclaws to be removed, while the standards of other kennel clubs do not mention it.[1][10][2][3][9][11][12]

Traditionally, the Yorkie??ôs tail is docked to a medium length.[12] In America, generally all breeders dock the tails of puppies. [7] However, since the 1990s there has been a growing movement to ban the practice of cosmetic docking.[13] The World Small Animal Veterinary Association and the European Convention for the Protection of Pet Animals oppose tail docking.[13][14] As of 2007, several nations have enacted prohibitions on docking, including Australia, Belgium, Cyprus, Finland, Germany, Greece, Luxembourg, Norway, South Africa, Sweden and Switzerland.[13][15][16] A docked tail is part of the AKC, ANKC, CKC, NZKC and UKC breed standards for Yorkshire Terriers.[1][3][9][10][11] The FCI and KC breed standards indicate the tail is customarily docked, but the KC standard gives specifications for an undocked tail (???as straight as possible; length to give a well balanced appearance???).[12][2]

Temperament

Though a toy breed, the Yorkie still retains much of its terrier ancestry in terms of personality. Individual dogs sometimes differ, but they are generally intelligent, independent and gutsy. Yorkshire Terriers are quick to determine where they fit in a household's "pack."[7] Their behavior towards outsiders will vary - they often will be inclined to bark at strangers, but some Yorkies are outgoing and friendly towards new people while others are withdrawn and aloof. The differences in behavior in this regard are largely based on how the owner trains or conditions (and socializes) the Yorkie.[7] A few individual Yorkshire Terriers may be timid or nervous, rather than bold, but the vast majority do seem to meet the breed standard for a confident, vigorous and self-important personality. The following distinctive qualities are likely to be present in a Yorkshire Terrier:[7]

Boldness

In a multi-breed home, the Yorkie will usually be the top "alpha" dog.[7] However, bold does not equal aggressive. Yorkies typically get along well with other dogs and love to play together with them. Rather, bold character comes from the Yorkie's mix of great inquisitiveness, or an instinct to protect, and self-confidence.[7] Some Yorkies are unaware of their small size and may even challenge larger, tougher dogs.[17] In one case a 12-pound Yorkie pushed open a screen door (to investigate a commotion outside) and rushed to the aid of an elderly woman who was being attacked by an 80-pound Akita.[18] When the Yorkie snapped and growled, the Akita turned his attention on the small dog long enough for the woman to escape.[19] Unfortunately, this boldness can get Yorkies into trouble, as small dogs can be seriously injured.

Intelligence

Yorkshire Terriers, as a breed, are intelligent dogs. According to Dr. Stanley Coren, an expert on animal intelligence, the Yorkshire Terrier is an above average working dog, ranking 27th (32nd including ties) out of the 132 breeds tested.[20] His research found that an average Yorkshire Terrier could understand a new command after approximately 15 repetitions and would obey a command the first time it was given 70% of the time or better.[21] This capacity as working dogs enables Yorkies to excel in sports like obedience and agility, which require the dog to understand communication from the handler and carry out a complex series of commands.[7] Additionally, Yorkies learn to recognize numerous words and can be taught to distinguish and fetch separate toys in a box by their names.[7]

Activeness

Like many toy dogs, Yorkshire Terriers are active and quick. Compared to a St. Bernard, the Yorkie might seem hyperactive. Normal Yorkie behavior involves darting, dashing, scampering, hopping and bouncing.[7] Most Yorkies also enjoy barking, but generally they only do so when there is a reason.[7] Yorkies make excellent watchdogs; they sleep lightly, wake easily and are quick to investigate and sound an alert.[7]

Independence

The well bred and well handled Yorkshire Terrier is content to be near its owner without being on a lap or underfoot.[7] Yorkies are energetic, but also need much rest and will often prefer to spend downtime in the privacy of a closet (or kennel) or a warm out-of-the-way corner. The independent nature derives from the Yorkie's terrier ancestry. Terriers were expected to hunt in the company of handlers and other dogs, but also to have the self-confidence to go out on their own after prey.[7] Very pampered and indulged Yorkies are more likely to be clingy and demanding, but ironically lack true terrier self-confidence.[7] Yorkshire Terriers tend to be more difficult to train than some breeds, due to their characteristic independent nature. The independent mindedness of Yorkies leads some trainers to consider them to be among the hardest to house-break.

Health

Health issues often seen in the Yorkshire Terrier include bronchitis, lymphangiectasia, hepatic lipidosis, cataracts and keratitis sicca.[7] Additionally, injection reactions (inflammation or hair loss at the site of an injection) are common.[22] Yorkies often have a delicate digestive system, with vomiting or diarrhea resulting from consumption of foods outside of a regular diet.[23] The relatively small size of the Yorkshire Terrier means that it usually has a poor tolerance for anesthesia. Additionally, a toy dog such as the Yorkie is more likely to be injured by falls, other dogs and owner clumsiness.[23] Due to their small size, Yorkies may be endangered if kept in the house with an undiscerning or abusive person, especially a child. They also are at risk of being injured inadvertently by children. Small children should be carefully watched around Yorkies. Many breeders and rescue organizations will not allow their Yorkies to go to families with young children, because of the risk it poses to the dog.

The life span of a healthy Yorkie is 12-15 years.[23] Under-sized Yorkies (3 pounds or less) generally have a shorter life span, as they are especially prone to health problems such as chronic diarrhea and vomiting; are even more sensitive to anesthesia; and are more easily injured.[23]

Hypoglycemia

Low blood sugar in puppies, or transient juvenile hypoglycemia, is caused by fasting (too much time between meals).[24] In rare cases hypoglycemia may continue to be a problem in mature, usually very small, Yorkies. It is often seen in Yorkie puppies at 5 to 16 weeks of age.[24] Very tiny Yorkie puppies are especially predisposed to hypoglycemia because a lack of muscle mass makes it difficult to store glucose and regulate blood sugar.[24] Factors such as stress, fatigue, a cold environment, poor nutrition, and a change in diet or feeding schedule may bring on hypoglycemia.[25] Low blood sugar can also be the result of a bacterial infection, parasite, or portosystemic liver shunt.[26] Hypoglycemia causes the puppy to become drowsy, listless (glassy-eyed), shaky and uncoordinated, since the brain relies on sugar to function.[24] Additionally, a hypoglycemic Yorkie may have a lower than normal body temperature and, in extreme cases, may have a seizure or go into a coma.[27] A puppy showing symptoms should be treated by a veterinarian immediately. Sugar can be placed in the dog??ôs mouth as an emergency remedy.[24] Medical attention is imperative, as prolonged or recurring attacks of hypoglycemia can permanently damage the dog??ôs brain.[27] In severe cases it can be fatal.[24]

Genetic defects

As with many purebred dogs, the Yorkshire Terrier is prone to certain genetic disorders, including distichiasis, hydrocephalus, hypoplasia of dens, Legg-Perthes disease, patellar luxation, portosystemic shunt, retinal dysplasia, tracheal collapse and bladder stones.[28] The following are among the most common congenital defects that affect Yorkies.

  • Distichiae, eyelashes arising from an abnormal spot (usually the duct of the meibomian gland at the edge of the eyelid), are often found in Yorkies.[23] Distichiae can irritate the eye and cause tearing, squinting, inflammation, and corneal abrasions or corneal ulcers and scarring. Treatment options may include manual removal, electrolysis or surgery.[29]
  • Hypoplasia of dens is a non-formation of the pivot point of the second cervical vertebra, which leads to spinal cord damage.[28] Onset of the condition may occur at any age, producing signs ranging from neck pain to quadriplegia.[22]
  • Legg-Perthes disease, which causes the top of the femur (thigh bone) to degenerate, occurs in Yorkies more than in any other breed.[30] The condition appears to result from insufficient circulation to the area around the hip joint.[7] As the blood supply is reduced, the bone in the head of the femur collapses and dies and the cartilage coating around it becomes cracked and deformed.[30] Usually the disease appears when the Yorkie is young (between five and eight months of age); signs are pain, limping or lameness.[31] The standard treatment is surgery to remove the affected part of the bone.[31] Following surgery, muscles hold the femur in place and fibrous tissue forms in the area of removal to prevent bone rubbing on bone.[32] Although the affected leg will be slightly shorter than prior to surgery, the Yorkie may regain almost normal use.[31]
  • Luxating patellas (slipping kneecaps) are another common genetic defect in Yorkies.[7] Weak ligaments and tendons in the knee or malformed (too shallow) patellar grooves, allow the patella to slip out of its groove sideways.[7][33] This causes the leg to 'lock up' with the foot held off the ground.[33] A dog with this problem may experience frequent pain and lameness or may be bothered by it only on occasion.[7] Over time, the patellar ridges can become worn down, making the groove even more shallow and causing the dog to become increasingly lame.[33] Surgery is the main treatment option available for luxating patellas, although it is not necessary for every dog with the condition.[7]
  • Portosystemic shunt, a congenital malformation of the portal vein (which brings blood to the liver for cleansing), is also common in Yorkies.[7] In this condition some of the dog's blood bypasses the liver and the ???dirty??? blood goes on to poison the heart, brain, lungs and other organs with toxins. A Yorkie with this condition might exhibit a wide variety of symptoms, such as small stature, poor appetite, weak muscle development, decreased ability to learn, inferior coordination, occasional vomiting and diarrhea, behavioral abnormalities, seizures (especially after a meal), blindness, coma and death.[7] Often the shunt can be treated with surgery.
  • Tracheal collapse, caused by a progressive weakening of the walls of the trachea, occurs in many toy breeds, especially very tiny Yorkies.[34] As a result of genetics, the walls of the trachea can be flaccid, a condition that becomes more severe with age.[7] Cushing's disease, a disorder that causes production of excess steroid hormone by the adrenal glands, can also weaken cartilage and lead to tracheal collapse.[35] There is a possibility that physical strain on the neck might cause or contribute to trachea collapse. Since this is usually caused by an energetic Yorkie pulling against his collar, many veterinarians recommend use of a harness for leashed walks.[34] An occasional ???goose honking??? cough, especially on exertion, is usually the first sign of this condition.[34] Over time, the cough may become almost constant in the Yorkie??ôs later life.[7] Breathing through the obstruction of a collapsed (or partially collapsed) trachea for many years can result in complications, including chronic lung disease.[7] The coughing can be countered with cough suppressants and bronchodilators.[34] If the collapse is advanced and unresponsive to medication, sometimes surgery can repair the trachea.[34]

History

Terrier legacy

The Yorkie was bred as a ratter, used to kill mice and rats in small places.[7] As a hunting group, terriers specialize in pursuing animals (usually vermin) that live in dens or burrows.[7] Animals that are cornered and defending their young will fight ferociously. Therefore, any dog that would willingly pursue them must have an extraordinary degree of courage; terriers are bred for that quality. The Yorkshire Terrier, with its feisty temperament, is no exception.

Breed ancestry

As the name implies, the Yorkshire Terrier originated in Yorkshire (and the adjoining Lancashire), a rugged region in northern England.[36] In the mid-nineteenth century, at the peak of England??ôs industrial revolution, craftsmen from Scotland came to Yorkshire in search of work and brought with them several different varieties of small long-coated terriers, generally known as Scottish terriers.[7] The specific breeds that make up the Yorkshire Terrier??ôs ancestry are not known, since the breeders at that time did not keep records of the bloodlines.[36] Certain breeds, however, are commonly thought to be the main forebears. The likely source of the Yorkie??ôs small stature, long-haired coat and blue color are the Clydesdale, Paisley, Skye and Waterside terriers, all Scottish terriers transported to England at various times.[7] The English Black and Tan Terrier bloodline probably gave the Yorkie its signature color pattern.[7] These breeds were all working dogs, used to keep vermin under control in the textile mills and coal mines.[36] Many have suggested that the Maltese, an ancient breed (likely originating in Asia), may be in the Yorkshire Terrier??ôs background as well.[36]

The breed first appeared at an 1861 bench show in England as the Broken-Haired Scotch Terrier, named for the dog??ôs Scottish terrier ancestors.[37] Early Yorkies were also known simply as Toy Terriers, in both rough and broken haired varieties.[38] Yorkshire Terriers were given their breed name by 1874.[38]

Huddersfield Ben

A dog known as Huddersfield Ben is universally acknowledged to be the foundation sire of the Yorkshire Terrier breed.[36] He was born in 1865 in the town of Huddersfield, county of Yorkshire.[39] The very public life of this dog, owned by M.A. Foster, did much to popularize the breed in England.[36] Ben died in an accident at the age of six, but in his short life he won more than 70 prizes at dog shows and also demonstrated exceptional skill in ratting contests.[36] Ben was a highly sought after stud dog because he was one of the first to consistently sire Yorkies true to type and under 5 pounds.[40]

The Yorkie in America

The Yorkshire Terrier was introduced in the United States in 1872.[36] The first Yorkie was registered with the American Kennel Club in 1878, making it one of the first twenty-five breeds to be approved for registration by the AKC.[7] During the late Victorian era, the Yorkshire Terrier quickly became a popular pet, and as Americans embraced Victorian customs, so too did they embrace the Yorkshire Terrier.[37] The breed??ôs popularity dipped in the 1940??ôs, when the percentage of small breed dogs registered fell to an all-time low of 18% of total registrations.[41] Smoky, a Yorkie and famous war dog from World War II, is credited with beginning a renewal of interest in the then obscure Yorkshire Terrier breed.[42]

Famous Yorkies

Dogs in film

  • Mr. Famous, Audrey Hepburn's beloved Yorkshire Terrier, appeared with her in a scene in Funny Face.[43] During the shoot of The Children's Hour, Mr. Famous was run over on Wilshire Boulevard and killed.[44][45] After the death of Mr. Famous, Mel Ferrer gave Hepburn another Yorkie named Assam of Assam. [45]
  • In the movie Meet the Fockers, the Fockers' (Dustin Hoffman and Barbra Streisand) family dog, Moses, is played by a female Yorkie mix named Terem. [46]
  • Horror film Urban Legend features a Yorkie in the role of Hootie, a fraternity house dog who drinks beer through a beer bong. Hootie is murdered by a serial killer in an imitation of the infamous urban legend of "the dog in the microwave."[47]
  • In the film Daltry Calhoun, Aunt Dee (Beth Grant) has a Yorkie named Pickles.[48]
  • The character of Mrs. Coady (Patricia Hayes) in A Fish Called Wanda owns three Yorkshire Terriers. Throughout the movie, an animal lover named Ken Pile (Michael Palin) repeatedly tries to assassinate Mrs. Coady, but instead accidentally kills the Yorkies one by one. Following the death of her last little dog, the woman dies of a heart attack.

Dogs in literature

  • Toto in the original book version of L. Frank Baum's The Wonderful Wizard of Oz is believed to be a Yorkie. Although the book does not specifically state Toto's breed, it describes Toto as "a little black dog with long silky hair."[49] Most recognize Toto as a Cairn Terrier from the 1939 film version. However, from the illustrations in the first book many have concluded that Toto is a Yorkshire Terrier, as this breed was very popular at the time of publication. Toto was a Boston Terrier in later books of the Oz series.
  • Fred Basset, the comic strip created by Alex Graham, features a Yorkshire Terrier named Yorky.

Dogs on TV

  • On the television series Green Acres, Eva Gabor's character (Lisa Douglas) owned a Yorkshire Terrier named Mignon (from the French meaning "cute" or "precious", as in "filet mignon").[50]
  • Whitney Houston's Yorkshire Terrier, Doogie, was featured with her on the television series Being Bobby Brown.[51][52][53]
  • On MTV's 'Til Death Do Us Part: Carmen and Dave, a reality show revolving around the marriage of Carmen Electra and Dave Navarro, the couple has a pet Yorkie named Daisy.[54]
  • A Yorkshire Terrier named Barney was seen on the newspaper drama television series Lou Grant, where he shared the spotlight with Margaret Pynchon (played by Nancy Marchand). The character of Barney was killed by a Pit Bull Terrier on an episode of Lou Grant that affected legislation on dog fighting in several states.[55]
  • The George Carlin Show featured a Yorkie named Miles (after jazz legend Miles Davis); George Carlin's George O'Grady won the dog from a plastic surgeon in the first episode of the television series.[56]

Show dogs

  • Huddersfield Ben, a champion show dog, was the father of the modern Yorkshire Terrier.[7]
  • Champion Cede Higgins, winner of the coveted Best in Show award at the prestigious Westminster Kennel Club dog show in 1978, was the first and only Yorkshire Terrier ever to win the title.[57]
  • In 1997, Champion Ozmilion Mystification became the first Yorkie to win Best in Show at Crufts, the world's largest annual dog show.[58][59]
  • Champion WA Mozart Dolce Sinfonia ("Mozart") is a show dog owned by socialite Sabrina A. Parisi. He was featured in the Krassimir Abramov music video for "Say Goodbye" and will star in the upcoming documentary It's a Dog Life from director Vibeke Muasya.[60] On May 11, 2006, Mozart attended Krassimir's concert at the Kodak Theater in Hollywood, becoming the first dog to enter the venue.

Small dogs

  • Sylvia, a matchbox-size Yorkshire Terrier owned by Arthur Marples of Blackburn, England, was the smallest dog in recorded history. The dog died in 1945 when she was almost two years old, at which point she stood 2.5 inches tall at the shoulder, measured 3.5 inches from nose tip to tail, and weighed 4 ounces.[61][62]
  • For 1995 through 2002 Guinness World Records listed a Yorkshire Terrier named Big Boss, as the smallest dog in the world. Big Boss was listed at 11.94cm (4.7in) tall when his owner, Dr. Chai Khanchanakom of Thailand, registered the toy dog with Guinness.[63]
  • A Yorkie named Thumbelina, 5.5 inches tall and 8 inches long, held the Guinness World Record for smallest living dog prior to 1995.[64]
  • Tiny Pinocchio, an abnormally small Yorkshire Terrier, has appeared on several television programs including Oprah and the Today Show.[65][66]

War dog

  • Smoky, a war dog and hero of World War II, was owned by William Wynne of Cleveland, Ohio. Wynne adopted Smoky while he was serving with the 5th Air Force in the Pacific.[67]

White House dog

  • Pasha, Tricia Nixon's pet Yorkie, lived in the White House during the Richard Nixon presidency.[68]

Celebrity Owners

  • A Yorkshire Terrier named Spike was the former canine sidekick of television celebrity Joan Rivers.[69] The corporate logo of Rivers' PGHM (Please God Help Me) Productions featured an image of her beloved Spike in a prayerful pose with a halo over his head.[70] Joan Rivers also owned a Yorkie named Veronica.[71]
  • Missy Elliott owns a Yorkshire Terrier named Poncho.[72] The dog appeared in the music video for Elliott's song "Lose Control."[73]
  • Kelly Rowland's Yorkshire Terrier, Mocha, was featured on an episode of Cribs on MTV.[74][75][76]
  • Justin Timberlake owns two Yorkshire Terriers named Bella and Bearlie. The dogs appeared with Justin in a 1997 US Weekly feature on the members of *N Sync and their dogs. [77]
  • Model Gisele Bundchen has often been photographed with her Yorkshire Terrier, Vida. [78][79][80][81][82]
  • Bruce Willis owns a Yorkshire Terrier named Wolf Fishbein (Wolfie), after a character in the Woody Allen movie Crimes and Misdemeanors.[83]
  • Raven-Symone owns a Yorkshire Terrier named Shawty Pimp. The dog appeared with Raven in a photo shoot for Ebony magazine.[84]
  • Professional football player Brett Favre owns a Yorkshire Terrier named Jazzmin.[85]
  • Actor Kyle MacLachlan and his wife have a Yorkie/Chihuahua mix named Sam who, along with their other dog Mookie, has a website and a "TV show". [86]
  • Actress Tara Reid owns a Yorkshire Terrier named Stoli.[87][88]
  • Public relations professional Lizzie Grubman from MTV's PoweR Girls owns two Yorkshire Terriers named Peanut and Crunch. [89][90]
  • Actress Taryn Manning owns a Yorkshire Terrier named Speakers. [91]
  • Chelsea Football Club Manager Jose Mourinho owns a Yorkshire Terrier named Leya. Mourinho was arrested for obstructing police and animal welfare authorities when they attempted to take his Yorkie into quarantine for alleged improper vaccination travel documentation. [92]

External links

References

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  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Yorkshire Terrier Breed Standard. The Kennel Club (United Kingdom). Retrieved on 2007-02-17.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Yorkshire Terrier Breed Standard (html). Australian National Kennel Council. Retrieved on 2007-02-17.
  4. ^ Breed Information: Yorkshire Terrier (html). Westminster Kennel Club. Retrieved on 2007-02-21.
  5. ^ Yorkshire Terrier Description. Dog Breed Information Site. Retrieved on 2007-02-17.
  6. ^ Parrillo, Gillian. "Sacramento's Favorite Dogs - 2007", Sacramento Executive, 2007-01-15. Retrieved on 2007-02-17. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an Lane, Marion (2001). The Yorkshire Terrier: An Owner's Guide to a Happy Healthy Pet. New York, NY: Howell Book House - Wiley Publishing, Inc.. ISBN 0-87605-477-7. 
  8. ^ a b Wash, John. Yorkshire Terrier (html). NetPets. Retrieved on 2007-02-21.
  9. ^ a b c d e f Yorkshire Terrier. Canadian Kennel Club Breed Standards. Retrieved on 2007-02-27.
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  16. ^ Milner-Smyth, Penny. "Rights improve for South Africa??ôs vulnerable", The Good News, 2006-05-06. Retrieved on 2007-03-01. 
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  18. ^ Beauchamp, Rick. "The Yorkshire Terrier: From Coal Mines to Cloud Nine", Dog and Kennel Magazine, 2000. Retrieved on 2007-03-16. 
  19. ^ Crips, Marty. Yorkies Go Down in History! (html). Retrieved on 2007-03-16.
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  28. ^ a b Hereditary and Congenital Diseases of Purebred Dogs (pdf). Kansas State University. Retrieved on 2007-03-13.
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  31. ^ a b c Voit, Pam. Legg Perthe's Disease: What you Should Know (html). Retrieved on 2007-03-04.
  32. ^ Degner, Danial (2004). Femoral Head and Neck Excision (html). Vet Surgery Central Inc.. Retrieved on 2007-03-04.
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  37. ^ a b Yorkshire Terrier (html). Yahoo! Pets. Retrieved on 2007-02-25.
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  39. ^ Emmily (2004-11-09). The Yorkshire Terrier (html). BBC. Retrieved on 2007-03-07.
  40. ^ Staples, Dr. Gordon. "Huddersfield Ben", Ladies Dogs As Companions, 1871. Retrieved on 2007-03-07. 
  41. ^ "Yorkies Have Their Year! Tiny Toy Overtakes Venerable Favorites - Golden Retriever and German Shepherd - as Second Most Popular Dog in America", AKC News, 2007-01-07. Retrieved on 2007-02-25. 
  42. ^ "Special Issue: Yorkshire Terrier", Popular Dog Magazine, 2001. 
  43. ^ Audrey Hepburn ??ď A Film Bluffers Guide (html). The Biography Channel. Retrieved on 2007-02-17.
  44. ^ Graham. An Audrey Hepburn Biography: A Brief Outline of the Life of Audrey Hepburn (html). Retrieved on 2007-02-17.
  45. ^ a b Audrey Hepburn (html). Answers.com. Retrieved on 2007-02-17.
  46. ^ Movie Review - Meet the Fockers (html). American Humane (2006-08-25). Retrieved on 2007-02-26.
  47. ^ Movie Review - Urban Legend (html). American Humane (2006-08-25). Retrieved on 2007-03-12.
  48. ^ Movie Review - Daltry Calhoun (html). American Humane (2006-08-25). Retrieved on 2007-03-12.
  49. ^ Terriers: Toto (html). TV Acres. Retrieved on 2007-02-25.
  50. ^ Photo Gallery. The Green Acres Virtual Museum. Retrieved on 2007-02-25.
  51. ^ Ryan, Joal. "The 'Bobby and Whitney' Show?", E! Online, 2004-04-02. Retrieved on 2007-02-17. 
  52. ^ Photos r?©centes de Whitney! (html). www.whitnet.org (2005-06). Retrieved on 2007-02-17.
  53. ^ Stars & their Pets/Whitney Houston :: Photo Gallery (html). Beirut.com. Retrieved on 2007-02-17.
  54. ^ Gallo, Amy. "Little Shoot on the Prairie: An Outtake from SELF's Carmen Electra Shoot for the August Issue", SELF Magazine, 2006-07-31. Retrieved on 2007-03-12. 
  55. ^ Golden, Lori. "Ed Asner: A Concerned Actor with a Powerful Voice", The Pet Press, 2001-02. Retrieved on 2007-02-25. 
  56. ^ Terriers: Miles (html). TV Acres. Retrieved on 2007-02-25.
  57. ^ Lieber, Jill. "Clark is Westminster's grande dame", USA Today, 2003-02-09. Retrieved on 2007-02-25. 
  58. ^ Crufts Best in Show Roll of Honour 1990 - 1999 (html). The Kennel Club (2006-08-07). Retrieved on 2007-03-07.
  59. ^ Linzy, Jan (2003). Yorkshire Terrier Champions, 1994-2001. Camino E E & Book Co. ISBN 1558931082. 
  60. ^ Anything Can Happen in Hollywood (html). DogueBlog. DogueMag (2007). Retrieved on 2007-05-03.
  61. ^ Choron, Sandra; Choron, Harry (2005). Planet Dog: A Doglopedia. Houghton Mifflin, 92. ISBN 0618517529. 
  62. ^ What is the worlds smallist (sic) dog?: Answer 6 (html). Yahoo! Answers. Retrieved on 2007-03-09. See also Barr, Tracy; Veling, Peter F. (2004-08-20). Yorkshire Terriers for Dummies. For Dummies. ISBN 0764568809. 
  63. ^ "Farewell to the Smallest Dog in the World", The Scoop, 2002-01-15. Retrieved on 2007-02-17. 
  64. ^ "World's smallest dog debuts", CNN - World News Briefs, 1995-12-10. Retrieved on 2007-03-10. 
  65. ^ Zucco, Tom. "World's Tiniest Dog?", St. Petersburg Times, 2003-04-22. Retrieved on 2007-02-17. 
  66. ^ Skeels-Hopson, Linda (2003). Appearances: Things We Did in 2003 (html). TinyPinocchio.com. Retrieved on 2007-02-17.
  67. ^ Wynne, Bill. Smoky 'Corporal Smoky' United States Army/Air Corps (html). PatsyAnn.com. Retrieved on 2007-02-15.
  68. ^ "Time & Again: White House Pets", MSNBC, 1998. Retrieved on 2007-02-25. 
  69. ^ Witchel, Alex. "Mother Courage In Milk", The New York Times, 1994-05-01. Retrieved on 2007-02-17. 
  70. ^ Terriers: Spike (html). TV Acres. Retrieved on 2007-02-25.
  71. ^ Rivers, Joan (2006-09). Joan Rivers' Blog (html). JoanRiversBlog.com. Retrieved on 2007-02-10.
  72. ^ Moody, Nekesa Mumbi. "Elliott Offers More Conventional Formula", Associated Press, 2005-06-29. Retrieved on 2007-02-17. 
  73. ^ Missy Elliott. Lose Control [Music Video]. Atlantic Street.
  74. ^ Landman, Beth. "Small-Dog Days", New York Magazine, 2005-08-22. Retrieved on 2007-02-17. 
  75. ^ Blast from the Past Photo (html). Celebrity Dog Watcher. Retrieved on 2007-02-17.
  76. ^ Barker, Lynn. "Kelly Rowland: Singer Running Scared", TeenMusic.com, 2003-08-14. Retrieved on 2007-02-17. 
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Toy dogs
Affenpinscher  ?∑ Australian Silky Terrier  ?∑ Bichon Fris?©  ?∑ Bolognese  ?∑ Boston Terrier  ?∑ Cavalier King Charles Spaniel  ?∑ Chihuahua  ?∑ Chinese Crested Dog  ?∑ Coton de Tulear  ?∑ English Toy Terrier  ?∑ Griffon Bruxellois  ?∑ Havanese  ?∑ Italian Greyhound  ?∑ Japanese Chin  ?∑ King Charles Spaniel  ?∑ L?∂wchen  ?∑ Maltese  ?∑ Miniature Pinscher  ?∑ Papillon  ?∑ Pekingese  ?∑ Pomeranian  ?∑ Pug  ?∑ Toy Manchester Terrier  ?∑ Yorkshire Terrier
Terriers
Hunting terriers Airedale Terrier  ?∑ Australian Terrier  ?∑ Bedlington Terrier  ?∑ Black and Tan Terrier  ?∑ Border Terrier  ?∑ Brazilian Terrier  ?∑ Cairn Terrier  ?∑ Cesky Terrier  ?∑ Chilean Fox Terrier  ?∑ Dandie Dinmont Terrier  ?∑ Fox Terrier (Smooth)  ?∑ Fox Terrier (Wire)  ?∑ Glen of Imaal Terrier  ?∑ Irish Terrier  ?∑ Jack Russell Terrier  ?∑ Jagdterrier  ?∑ Kerry Blue Terrier  ?∑ Lakeland Terrier  ?∑ Manchester Terrier  ?∑ Miniature Schnauzer  ?∑ Norfolk Terrier  ?∑ Norwich Terrier  ?∑ Parson Russell Terrier  ?∑ Patterdale Terrier  ?∑ Plummer Terrier  ?∑ Rat Terrier  ?∑ Ratonero Bodeguero Andaluz  ?∑ Russell Terrier  ?∑ Scottish Terrier  ?∑ Sealyham Terrier  ?∑ Skye Terrier  ?∑ Soft-Coated Wheaten Terrier  ?∑ Teddy Roosevelt Terrier  ?∑ Welsh Terrier  ?∑ West Highland White Terrier
Dog fighting terriers American Pit Bull Terrier  ?∑ American Staffordshire Terrier  ?∑ Bull Terrier  ?∑ Irish Bull Terrier  ?∑ Irish Staffordshire Terrier  ?∑ Staffordshire Bull Terrier
Companion & toy terriers American Hairless Terrier  ?∑ Australian Silky Terrier  ?∑ Boston Terrier  ?∑ Bull Terrier (Miniature)  ?∑ English Toy Terrier (Black & Tan)  ?∑ Japanese Terrier  ?∑ Miniature Fox Terrier  ?∑ Toy Fox Terrier  ?∑ Toy Manchester Terrier  ?∑ Yorkshire Terrier

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